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Aktuelle Mandanteninformation zum Steuerrecht Aufspaltung: Wer muss einen Übertragungsgewinn bei einer Organschaft versteuern?

In einem vom Bundesfinanzhof (BFH) entschiedenen Streitfall wurde eine Organgesellschaft aufgespalten. Bis dato hatte sie ein Einzelhandelsunternehmen in Form zahlreicher Filialen betrieben. Vor dem Hintergrund der beabsichtigten Privatisierung des Filialgeschäfts wurde jede einzelne Niederlassung auf eine jeweils neu gegründete Tochtergesellschaft übertragen. Auch die Zentralfunktionen der bisherigen Gesellschaft wurden von einer eigens gegründeten Tochtergesellschaft übernommen. Durch die Aufspaltung endete die Organgesellschaft.

Die Aufspaltung wurde rückwirkend unter Ansatz der Buchwerte vorgenommen; entsprechend wurde die Buchwertfortführung beantragt. Die Muttergesellschaft (Organträgerin) der aufgespaltenen (Organ-)Gesellschaft schloss nur wenige Tage später jeweils einen Ergebnisabführungsvertrag mit ihren neuen Tochtergesellschaften. Viele der neuen Tochtergesellschaften wurden wiederum kurze Zeit später an diverse Käufer veräußert.

Im Rahmen einer Betriebsprüfung kam das Finanzamt zu dem Ergebnis, dass eine Buchwertfortführung wegen der anschließenden Veräußerung eines maßgeblichen Teils der Gesellschaftsanteile an den Nachfolge-GmbHs nicht möglich sei. Es erließ daraufhin gegenüber allen Nachfolge-GmbHs gleichlautende Gewerbesteuer-Messbescheide und ermittelte einen gewerbesteuerrechtlichen Übertragungsgewinn. Die Prüfer begründeten dies mit einer Vorschrift im Umwandlungssteuergesetz, nach der die Aufspaltung nicht steuerneutral erfolgen dürfe, wenn die Aufspaltung - wie vorliegend - der Vorbereitung einer Veräußerung dienen solle.

Das Finanzgericht (FG) beurteilte die Steuerfestsetzung als rechtswidrig und hielt eine Fortführung der Buchwerte für möglich. Ein eventuell entstandener gewerbesteuerrechtlicher Übertragungsgewinn sei Teil des der Organträgerin zuzurechnenden Einkommens. Der BFH hat das FG-Urteil bestätigt und die Revision des Finanzamts als unbegründet zurückgewiesen.

Hinweis: Dient eine Aufspaltung der Vorbereitung einer Veräußerung von Vermögensteilen einer Gesellschaft, kann die Aufspaltung selbst nicht zu Buchwerten erfolgen. Handelt es sich bei der aufgespaltenen Gesellschaft um eine Organgesellschaft, muss der Organträger "die Zeche zahlen".

Information für: GmbH-Gesellschafter/-GF
zum Thema: Körperschaftsteuer

Quelle: www.mandanteninformation-online.de, Ausgabe 02/2022